Off-spinner Graeme Swann took the other wicket, Cheteshwar Pujara (26).
India remain 243 runs behind England in their first innings in Nagpur.
Earlier in the day, Joe Root played a mature innings of 73 before Swann came in and dispatched the Indian attack for a quickfire 56 – his first half century since 2009 – and leading England to 330 all out.
Even though the pitch didn’t seem a seamers dream, Anderson like his counterpart Ishant Sharma the day before, made the most of the new ball.
He bowled Sehwag and Tendulker and had Gambhir caught behind while attempting to cover drive.
Gambhir and Pujara looked dangerous with a 58-run partnership, broken by mercurial Swann, but it took a screamer of a catch from Ian Bell at short leg to do it.
If India joined the rest of the cricket world in supporting video reviews, he may have been saved, as the ball was shown to have missed his glove.
Virat Kohli and MS Dhoni are the not out batsmen going into day three, and have a lot of work to do to stop England was winning their first series in India since 1984-85.
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