The 27-year-old fast bowler dismissed Andrew Strauss (six) before lunch and then accounted for Alastair Cook (five) and Kevin Pietersen (nought) in his hostile nine-over first spell on a spin-friendly Dubai Stadium pitch.
Spinners Abdul Rehman (3-37) and Saeed Ajmal (3-42) – his second 10-wicket haul in Tests – supplemented Gul to help Pakistan bundle out England for 160.
Pakistan notched the required 15 runs in 3.4 overs to hand England their first defeat in 10 Tests, since losing to Australia at Perth in the 2010 Ashes.
England’s batsmen, wrecked by Ajmal’s career-best 7-55 in their first innings of 192, were again clueless against the spin and played some rash shots as they sought to score runs on the pace of Gul.
Jonathan Trott top-scored with 49, but fell to an irresponsible shot, trying to force a short delivery from Gul and being caught by wicket-keeper Adnan Akmal, who finished the match with seven catches.
Trott, who passed the boundary of 2,000 runs when he reached 18 in his 24th Test, hit six boundaries during his 111-ball knock but became Gul’s 150th wicket in his 41st Test.
England had another disastrous start as Strauss was adjudged caught behind, pushing Gul to the leg side and seeing the ensuing edge well taken by the wicket-keeper.
Strauss instantly challenged the verdict but was left to trudge off the field after television umpire Steve Davis of Australia upheld the original decision.
Soon after the lunch break, Gul produced a sharp rising delivery that caught Cook in two minds as the left-hander gloved it to Adnan, who had no trouble in gathering it.
Kevin Pietersen, who has yet to score big on tour, made it 3-25 when he hooked a Gul bouncer straight into the hands of deep square-leg fielder Abdul Rehman.
Ajmal then got in on the act when he trapped Ian Bell plumb in front of the wicket for four.
Bell wasted England’s second referral as television replays showed he was hit on the back leg, in line with the stumps.
Rehman ended a fifth-wicket partnership of 39 by dismissing Eoin Morgan (14) caught behind, while Ajmal trapped Matt Prior to leave England 7-87.
Stuart Broad (17) and Graeme Swann (39) delayed the inevitable by putting on 48 for the eighth wicket before Rehman dismissed Broad and Chris Tremlett off successive deliveries.
Ajmal took the last wicket by getting Swann caught, much to the delight of his team-mates and the few hundred people in the stands.
In the morning, Adnan had boosted Pakistan’s lead with a gutsy second Test half-century. Adnan scored a career-best 61, adding another 50 runs after Pakistan resumed at 7-288.
Adnan, who hit eight boundaries during his 129-ball knock, put on a 30-run stand for the ninth wicket with Ajmal, who made 12. His previous best of 53 came against Bangladesh in Dhaka last month.
Swann had Adnan stumped to finish with figures of 4-107.
The second Test starts in Abu Dhabi from January 25, while the third will again be played at Dubai from February 3-7.